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What are the types of cookies?

Cookies can be broadly classified into 2 types

1. Persistent cookies: Remain on the client computer, even after the browser is closed. You can configure how long the cookies remain using the expires property of the Http Cookie object.

2. Non-Persistent cookies: If you don't set the Expires property, then the cookie is called as a Non-Persistent cookie. Non-Persistent cookies only remain in memory until the browser is closed.

There two type of cookies ..
 Persistent cookies: cookies are stored on your computer hard disk. They stay on your hard disk and can be accessed by web servers until they are deleted or have expired. 
public void SetPersistentCookies(string name, string value){
 HttpCookie cookie = new HttpCookie(name);
 cookie.Value = value;
 cookie.Expires = Convert.ToDateTime(“12/12/2008”);

Non-persistent cookies: cookies are saved only while your web browser is running. They can be used by a web server only until you close your browser. They are not saved on your disk.
 public void SetNonPersistentCookies(string name, string value){
 HttpCookie cookie = new HttpCookie(name);
 cookie.Value = value;

What is a NullPointer Exception in and how to fix it

Null pointer exception means you are trying to access a member field or a function from an object which is null. for example you created a object of a class object name is "ClassAobj" and you want a variable value from class which is assign and initilize in that class now int a = ClassAobj.Number1; if "ClassAobj" is null then you can not access the value of Number1 . for fixing it ,either you have to initilize the class or you have to full if condition if(ClassAobj != null) { int a = ClassAobj.Number1; }

You are trying to use something that is null (or Nothing in VB.NET). This means you either set it to null, or you never set it to anything at all.

Like anything else, null gets passed around. If it is null in method "A", it could be that method "B" passed a null to method "A".

The rest of this article goes into more detail and shows mistakes that many programmers often make which can lead to a NullReferenceException.

How do you create a Persistent Cookie?

You create a persistent cookie the same way as session cookies except that you set the Expires property to a Date in the future which will store the Cookie to the client computer hard drive.

//Code to create a UserName Persistent Cookie that lives for 10 days
HttpCookie CookieObject = new HttpCookie("UserName", "David");
CookieObject.Expires = DateTime.Now.AddDays(10);

//Code to read the Cookie created above

Cookies have an expiration date implicitly or explicitly set which controls how long they last (subject to the user agent actually enforcing it). A cookie may persist only for the duration of the session (or an even shorter period).

If a cookie is valid, it will be passed along with the HTTP request to the domain that it originated from. Only the domain that set the cookie can read the cookie (though there are ways to exploit this, such as cross-site scripting).

  • If you want a cookie to expire at a specific time, set an expiration date on it using the client or server-side language of your choice.

  • If you want the cookie to expire when the session ends, don't set an expiration date.

What is difference between config() and run() method in AngularJS? which runs first ?

AngularJS   .Config() Method - configuration gets executed during the configuration phase. We can inject providers and constants into configuration block. This block is used to inject module wise configuration settings to prevent accidental instantiation of services before they have been fully configured.

AngularJS  .Run method – Run method is executed after the configuration method. we can inject instances and constants in run method. The run method is a great place to put event handlers that need to be executed at the root level for the application. For example, authentication handlers.

Configuration():  get executed during the provider registrations and configuration phase. Only providers and constants can be injected into configuration blocks. This is to prevent accidental instantiation of services before they have been fully configured.

Run(): get executed after the injector is created and are used to kickstart the application. Only instances and constants can be injected into run blocks. This is to prevent further system configuration during application run time.Run blocks are the closest thing in AngularJS to the main method. It is executed after all of the services have been configured and the injector has been created. Run blocks typically contain code which is hard to unit-test, and for this reason should be declared in isolated modules, so that they can be ignored in the unit-tests.

Why Constructor name is same as Class name

Constructor is called immediately after an object of a class is created. To reduce the number of keywords in Java, name of the constructor is defined same as the Class name. The Java developers don't want to include new keyword for constructor. They want to keep it simple and precise.
So that it can be unambigously identified as the constructor. and how its get invoked implicitly when we create object of that class. It is invoked by the compiler because it has already been unambiguously identified because of its naming sheme.

Its more of a convenient convention rather than a logical reason. Methods in a class which have the same name as the class name are constructors - the easiest and simplest way to identify a method as a constructor. This is much better than telling the compiler about the constructor methods using config files or using annotations over methods…

Why do we use jQuery?

  • Easy to use and learn.
  • Easily expandable.
  • Cross-browser support (IE 6.0+, FF 1.5+, Safari 2.0+, Opera 9.0+)
  • Easy to use for DOM manipulation and traversal.
  • Large pool of built in methods.
  • AJAX Capabilities.
  • Methods for changing or applying CSS, creating animations.
  • Event detection and handling.
  • Tons of plug-ins for all kind of needs.

These are just a few reasons. But the bottom line is the jQuery is becoming the standard for DOM manipulation, simple effects, and much more.

  • Well maintained - Documentation, examples, it's all there.
  • Browser compatible - You don't worry about it.
  • Easy to learn - Spend more time coding!
  • Large community - The answer is always on Stack Overflow.
  • It's correct - It does a lot of small things correctly so you don't have to.
  • Extendable - Tons of community plugins for value.

What is static polymorphism and dynamic polymorphism?


A method which will bind at compile time will execute in runtime is called as static polymorphism or early binding or compile time polymorphism


A method which will bind at compile time will not execute, instead of that a method which will bind at runtime will execute is called as RUNTIME


Static polymorphism:

The process of binding the overloaded method within object at compile time is known as Static polymorphism due to static polymorphism utilization of resources (main memory space) is poor because for each and every overloaded method a memory space is created at compile time when it binds with an object. In C++ environment the above problem can be solve by using dynamic polymorphism by implementing with virtual and pure virtual function so most of the C++ developer in real worlds follows only dynamic polymorphism.

Dynamic polymorphism:

In dynamic polymorphism method of the program binds with an object at runtime the advantage of dynamic polymorphism is allocating the memory space for the method (either for overloaded method or for override method) at run time.

Polymorphism means one name, multiple forms. It allows us to have more than one function with the same name in a program.It allows us to have overloading of operators so that an operation can exhibit different behaviours in different instances.

Rest API Authentication in Java

In token-based authentication, the client exchanges hard credentials (such as username and password) for a piece of data called token. Instead of sending the hard credentials in every request, the client will send the token to the server to perform authentication and authorization.

 in this RESTful services tutorial, we will see about how to do HTTP basic authentication. There are many ways to implement authentication in RESTful web services. HTTP basic authentication is the first step in learning security.

why you used JavaScript? Can it use for both client side and server side validation purpose?

Javascript is a client side scripting, which runs in the browser. Even AJAX runs in the browser and is also a client 
side one, which actually is nothing but Javascript. In AJAX javascript is used to communicate with server side 
components or post values to a JSP / ASP or any web page or any services which can be referred by URL.

JavaScript is a platform-independent,event-driven, interpreted client-side scripting and programming language. 

Javascript (ECMA script) when executed in the browser context makes it client side, if you are using it for creating API's etc with nodeJS you get to use it on the server side 

Client-side validation just avoids the client from going "but I filled this all in and it didn't tell me anything!". It's not actually mandatory, and in reality, client-side validation is a very new thing (read: 5 years old or less). In practice, all it does is prevent your client (with JS enabled) to know whether the form is okay before reloading a page. If AJAX is in the game, it is different - it allows you to save bandwidth as well as to provide user with feedback before submission. Finally, if you're building strictly client-side, peer-to-peer exchange apps (think games), you'll want client-side validation to keep the clients from cheating.

Server-side validation is also crucial due to the fact that client-side validation can be completely bypassed by turning off JavaScript. In a way, JS-driven validation is a convenience and an aesthetic/cosmetic improvement and should not be relied upon. Furthermore, it is trivial to edit the source of a page locally in order to disable or bypass even the most complex of JS validation.

What could a user do if you do not server-side validate? Anything, depending on how you use their data. You could be allowing users to drop entire databases (or worse, leak them), modify anything they like (or worse, read anything they like. Directory traversal flaws are extremely common entrance points for naughty people), and elevate their privileges at will. Do you want to run this risk? Not validating user input is like trusting people and not installing locks on your house.

The main use of Javascript is that it allows you to make things happen in the user's browser without sending messages back and forth to the server. There are a variety of reasons why you might want to do this.

For example, sending a message to the server and getting a reply is a relatively long process: it is almost always a noticable time lag, and can take many seconds. Doing something directly in the browser can be much faster. So if, for example, you want to give the user an "invalid data" message of some sort, it can be much faster if it comes from Javascript.

In the same vein, with Javascript you can validate field-by-field rather than waiting until the user has completely filled out the screen and clicked a submit button. For example, suppose you present the user with a screen where he's supposed to enter transaction dates and monetary amounts. The user enters a whole screen full of these -- maybe 20 or 30 transactions -- and then clicks submit. If the user attempts to type dates in a format that you don't recognize, say typing day/month/year when you expected year-month-day, then with Javascript you could give him an error on the first unrecognizable date. With a round trip to the server, he'd have typed in a whole screen-full of invalid dates before you tell him he's doing it wrong.

Advantages of Rational ClearCase over other SCM tool i.e Microsoft Visual Source Safe

1. In ClearCase Check-in's are atomic.
2. Directories are first-class controlled entities in 
Clearcase. Even supports controlling of symbolic/hard links.

As with the ClearCase Bridge, you are continuing to use ClearCase for versioning, and are using RTC for change request management, task management, and planning.   With the Clearcase importer (either the Version Importer or the Baseline Importer), you are using RTC for versioning as well, and only using Clearcase for occasional access to archived versioned information that was not imported into RTC. In Clearcase performance is better supports more data size.

VSS Performance is poor and supports less data size.Directories are first-class controlled entities in clearcase. Even supports controlling of symbolic/hard links and The multisite is the best part of clearcase than any other 

In CLearcase performance is better supports more data size..

VSS Performance is poor and supports less data size.....