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What are the advantages of automation testing?

  • It supports execution of repeated test cases.
  • It facilitates parallel execution.
  • It aids in testing a large test matrix.
  • It improves accuracy because there are no chances of human errors.
  • It saves time and money.

Benefits of automated testing

  • ROI.

Let’s start from the beginning: the big initial investment. This may be a hold back for many, but it is proven that the return of that investment is a long-term one and it will also save time.

ROI - benefits of automated testing

  • Running tests 24/7:

No matter where you are in the world. You can start the tests when you leave the office and when you get back in the morning you can see the results and keep on working. You can even do that remotely if you don’t have a lot of devices or you don’t have the possibility to buy them.

  • Fewer human resources.

You don’t need a lot of people: you would need a test automation engineer to write your scripts to automate your tests, instead of a lot of people doing boring manual tests over and over again.

  • Reusability.

The scripts are reusable:

  • you don’t need new scripts all the time, even if the version of the OS on the device changes
  • it allows you to redo the test exactly the same, without forgetting any steps
  • Bugs.

Automation helps you find bugs in the early stages of software development, reducing expenses and working hours to fix these problems as well.

  • Reliability:

automated testing is more reliable and way quicker when running boring repetitive standardized tests which can not be skipped, ever, but may cause errors when manually tested

  • Simultaneity:

you can test more devices simultaneously resulting in comparative detailed reports generated in less time with the exact the same parameters, because the exact same scripts were run.

  • Continuity:

automated testing helps testers, such as automation engineers. They can see exactly what other engineers have done, what scripts he has already written and what tests have already been performed and what bugs were already found and fixed, through clear reports.

  • Additional methods:

one of the these methods is the stress test in which the capacities of the application and operational infrastructure will be tested to it’s limits with stress test, which can’t be done manually.

  • Volume:

automated testing allows to run tests on thousands of mobile devices (more then 18000 devices). Testing all of them manually would be impossible!

In the end you will have a better quality software which will be released earlier, with less problems and you have used less resources.

As largely know, there is usually always a downside to everything. So there are downsides to automated testing as well.

There are a few things that automated testing won’t do: it won’t fix specific problems that users might have. When writing and testing the scripts there are just some scenarios that are being tested, not all of them. The main purpose of automated testing is to find bugs in simple operations, e.g. to log into the app, create a new account or send email when the password gets forgotten. That’s what automated tests do.

Test automation can automate some repetitive but necessary tasks in a formalized testing process already in place ,or perform additional testing that would be difficult to do manullay. A growing trend soft ware development is the use of testing frameworks such as the xunit frame work. example : junit runs tests significantly faster than human users. how the website software reacts after repeated execution of the same operation. test can be used re used on different versions of the software. The same operation each time they are run thereby eliminating humman error. Testers can program sophisticated tests that bring hidden information.
  • Reduced test execution time
  • Can be executed in cross platforms test cases (different OS, browsers, environment, etc)
  • Simplifies complex functional tests
  • Automating repetitive tasks
  • Enables parallel execution

What is drawable folder in android?

A compiled visual resource that can used as a backgrounds,banners, icons,splash screen etc.
By default Android maintain three folders for the images with different resolution reason behind it is the use or the resolution of the Android Device on which the application gonna execute. hdpi image folder maintain images for the Android Broad Screen set or Android Phones with the Higher resolution. ldpi for Lower images quality which supports by the earlier sets of the android mdpi for medium images support xhdi images folder for devices with maximum resolution. Android OS select the image it self by checking the compatible device and its resolution. Hope it helps. Accept if you get your explanation.

How should a C# Web API model binder provider work?

If the parameter is a “simple” type, Web API tries to get the value from the URI. Simple types include the .NET Primitive Types (int, bool, double, and so forth), plus TimeSpan, DateTime, Guid, decimal, and string, plus any type with a type converter that can convert from a string. (More about type converters later.). For complex types, Web API tries to read the value from the message body, using a media type formatter.

For example, here is a typical Web API controller method:

public class MyModelBinderProvider: ModelBinderProvider
    public override IModelBinder GetBinder(HttpConfiguration configuration, Type modelType)
        IModelBinder modelBinder = null;

        if (modelType.IsGenericType && (modelType.GetGenericTypeDefinition() == typeof(List<>)))
            modelBinder = new ListModelBinder();   
        return modelBinder;
GlobalConfiguration.Configuration.Services.Insert(typeof(ModelBinderProvider), 0, new MyModelBinderProvider());
in Global.asax 

When Web API calls a method on a controller, it must set values for the parameters, a process called binding. This article describes how Web API binds parameters, and how you can customize the binding process.

By default, Web API uses the following rules to bind parameters:

  • If the parameter is a “simple” type, Web API tries to get the value from the URI. Simple types include the .NET primitive types (intbooldouble, and so forth), plus TimeSpanDateTimeGuiddecimal, and stringplus any type with a type converter that can convert from a string. (More about type converters later.)
  • For complex types, Web API tries to read the value from the message body, using a media-type formatter.

What are Dynamic views? #Clearcase

To use a ClearCase dynamic view in the Rational ClearTeam Explorer:

  1. In the ClearTeam Navigator, create a new view by selecting ClearCase -> Create View or join a ClearCase UCM project by selecting ClearCase -> Join Project.
  2. If you are creating a new view, specify the View Type as Dynamic on the Create a ClearCase view page. If you are joining a ClearCase UCM project, in the Join Project wizard, specify the View Type as Web on the Set up a ClearCase UCM development environment page.
  3. Finish the process of creating a new ClearCase view or joining a ClearCase UCM project.

Dynamic views are based on network content: they represent the dynamic (as in "always refreshed") view of a network content (the remote VOB versions selected by the config spec).Dynamic views are great for quickly testing config specs, but accessing many files from the dynamic view is slow. And if you are trying to access them via ssh for rsync for example you run into many permission and other problems.

How to get facebook access token for application

Hi, I came across a good article at :, it got step-by-step instructions, it may be useful to you.

Obtaining an App Access Token

To obtain an App Access Token, invoke the following HTTP GET request:


The API will respond with a query-string formatted string of the form:



What is selenium? What are the different components of selenium?

Selenium is one of the most popular automated browser based-testing software, which lets you automated operations like click, type and selection from a drop down of a web page. It is designed to support and encourage automation testing of functionalities of web based applications and a wide range of browsers and platforms. It is one of the most accepted tools amongst the testing professional due to its existence in the open source community.

Selenium is not just a single tool rather than it is a package of several testing tools and that?s why it is referred as a suite. Each of these tools is designed to cater different testing and test environment requirement.

Selenium is an automation test framework or an API that works with Java, C#, Perl, Ruby, Python and Groovy programming languages to automate the browser activities.

Components of selenium:

1. Selenium-IDE:
Selenium-IDE is the Integrated Development Environment for building Selenium test cases. It operates as a Firefox add-on.
It is very easy to use. It has record and play feature and we can also write our own extensions and implement loops, if statements, use arrays, parameterize test cases. Selenium-IDE is very user friendly.
Limitation of Selenium-IDE:
It gets installed as an add-on on Mozilla and works only on Mozilla. IDE cannot work on browsers other than Mozilla. That’s why RC or webdriver is used.
2. Selenium-RC (Remote Control):
Selenium Remote Control (RC) is a test tool that allows you to write automated web application UI tests in any programming language.
Selenium Remote Control is great for testing complex AJAX-based web applications. Selenium Remote Control can be used for any java script enabled browser.
Limitation of Selenium-RC:
In RC we have to start the server again and again i.e. RC completely depends upon server. Switching between the multiple instances of the same browser is not possible. Switching between the multiple instances of the different browsers is not possible.
3. Selenium-Grid:
Selenium Grid is a server that allows tests to use web browser instances running on remote machines. With Selenium Grid, one server acts as the hub.
4.Selenium WebDriver
WebDriver is designed to provide a simpler, more concise programming interface in addition to addressing some limitations in the Selenium-RC API. WebDriver’s goal is to supply a well-designed object-oriented API that provides improved support for modern advanced web-app testing problems.

What are key OOPS principals in java?

There are mainly four concepts called 1. Inheritance, 2. Ploymorphism, 3. Abstraction and 4. Encaptulation and these four things are referred as OOP principals in Java. It is a very basic question and there are a lot of answer you will be able to find out if you google it. Below is a link for your benefit.
  • Object
  • Class
  • Inheritance
  • Polymorphism
  • Abstraction
  • Encapsulation

There are three main features of OOPS:

  1. Encapsulation
  2.  Inheritance
  3.  Polymorphism


Encapsulation means putting together all the variables (instance variables) and the methods into a single unit called Class. It also means hiding data and methods within an Object. Encapsulation provides the security that keeps data and methods safe from inadvertent changes. 


the ability to create classes that share the attributes and methods of existing classes, but with more specific features. Inheritance is mainly used for code reusability. So you are making use of already written the classes and further extending on that. 


In Core, Java Polymorphism is one of easy concept to understand. Polymorphism definition is that Poly means many and morphos means forms. It describes the feature of languages that allows the same word or symbol to be interpreted correctly in different situations based on the context. There are two types of Polymorphism available in Java. 

How efficient is Linux for gaming technologies?

As a predominant DirectX 9 gamer, I've been looking through the Wine HQ, and am quite surprised. Nearly all of my favourite games work! I just recently even installed Gutterball Golden Pin Bowling, no hiccups.
But as a whole, how efficient is Wine for games, and the future of open source Unix gaming? It seems that majority of DX 9 titles, least the ones I like are fine.  DirectX 10.x too with patches, depending on popularity.
What our your guy's thoughts on the matter? I'd really like to hear some opinions. I'm a previous OS X user, so I know how painful Wine compatibility wrappers can be. Typically, I only use it for some old software and games.
In the end, I leave my gaming to Gamecube/Wii/360 most of the time. But I do a lot of earlier 2k's stuff on my computer.

Linux gaming refers to playing and developing video games for the Linux operating system, involving a Linux-kernel based operating system, often used for all computing tasks like surfing the web, office applications, desktop publishing, but also for gaming.Linux gaming started largely as an extension of the already present Unix gaming scene, with both systems sharing many similar titles. These games were either mostly original or clones of arcade games and text adventures. A notable example of this was the so-called "BSD Games", a collection of interactive fiction titles.

How to write alphabetic Pattern


#include <stdio.h>

int main()
    int i, j;
            printf("%c",'A' + j-1);

    return 0;


class AlphabetsPattern
  public static void main(String abc[])
   for(int i=1;i<5;i++)
   int alphabet=65;                          //ASCII value of A
   for(int j=1;j<=i;j++)

What is the difference between Drop, Delete and Truncate statements in SQL Server?

Drop, Delete and Truncate - All operations can be rolled back.

All the statements (Delete, Truncate and Drop) are logged operations, but the amount of information that is logged varies. Delete statement logs an entry in the transaction log for each deleted row, where as Truncate Table logs only the Page deallocations.
Hence, truncate is a little faster than Delete.

You can have a where clause in Delete statement where as Truncate statement cannot have a where clause. Truncate will delete all the rows in a Table, but the structure of the table remains. Drop would delete all the rows including the structure of the Table.



The DROP command removes a table from the database. All the tables' rows, indexes and privileges will also be removed. No DML triggers will be fired. The operation cannot be rolled back.


TRUNCATE removes all rows from a table. The operation cannot be rolled back and no triggers will be fired. As such, TRUNCATE is faster and doesn't use as much undo space as a DELETE.



The DELETE command is used to remove rows from a table. A WHERE clause can be used to only remove some rows. If no WHERE condition is specified, all rows will be removed. After performing a DELETE operation you need to COMMIT or ROLLBACK the transaction to make the change permanent or to undo it. Note that this operation will cause all DELETE triggers on the table.

DROP and TRUNCATE are DDL commands, whereas DELETE is a DML command. Therefore DELETE operations can be rolled back (undone), while DROP and TRUNCATE operations cannot be rolled back.